About melissialenox

Wonder Woman • voracious booketarian and bibliophile • polymath of all I see hear and feel • member of the Organization • fictionfan • literaturemaven • lover of Humanity • protector of The Animal Kingdom • social dragonfly • dedicated to raising good humans • karma huntswoman • everyone matters

Join Senator Cory Booker’s 2017 Summer Book Club

To kick off our 2017 Book Club, we’ve chosen a must-read book that takes a hard look at the human impact on our environment. Elizabeth Kolbert’s Pulitzer-prize winner, The Sixth Extinction, has been recommended to me by so many people I’ve lost count. And as we head into a year when we’ll need to fight even harder for a more sustainable future, it’s an especially important read—I hope you’ll join me and open this book right away.
Here’s where you can sign up for it. 

The Moon Rises over Glastonbury Tor


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July 20 is National Moon Day, commemorating the first time that a human being set foot on the moon, this day in 1969. Glastonbury Tor, shown here, provides a magical setting for pondering the celestial body, especially during a full moon. It’s said that King Arthur and his knights visited this site in the English county of Somerset, and some believe it to be the Avalon of Arthurian legend.

Building a World of Acceptance: A Conversation with DeRay Mckesson

Longreads

Cody Delistraty | Longreads | July 2017 | 9 minutes (2392 words)

It was one o’clock in the morning on August 16th, 2014. In Minneapolis, DeRay Mckesson watched the news on television and scrolled through Twitter. “I saw what was happening on CNN; I saw what was happening on Twitter, and they were telling two different stories. And I said, ‘I just want to go see for myself.’” Exactly one week before, Ferguson, Missouri police officer Darren Wilson had killed Michael Brown, an unarmed, black teenager. The television narrative highlighted protesters’ supposed unrest and Wilson’s self-defense claim. The narrative on Mckesson’s Twitter timeline was quite different: police brutality and murder.

That morning, Mckesson drove nine hours from Minneapolis to St. Louis to protest in the streets. The Ferguson protests not only propelled to the national stage the Black Lives Matter movement — originally sparked after George Zimmerman shot and killed…

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Book Review | The Lost History of Stars by Dave Boling

From a forgotten moment in history comes an inspiring novel about finding strength and courage in the most unimaginable places.

In turn-of-the-century South Africa, fourteen-year-old Lettie, her younger brother, and her mother are Dutch Afrikaner settlers who have been taken from their farm by British soldiers and are being held in a concentration camp. It is early in the Boer War, and Lettie’s father, grandfather, and brother are off fighting the British as thousands of Afrikaner women and children are detained. The camps are cramped and disease ridden; the threat of illness and starvation are ever present. Determined to dictate their own fate, Lettie and her family give each other strength and hope as they fight to survive amid increasingly dire conditions.

Brave and defiant, Lettie finds comfort in memories of stargazing with her grandfather, her plan to be a writer, and surprising new friendships that will both nourish and challenge her. A beautiful testament to love, family, and sheer force of will, The Lost History of Stars was inspired by Dave Boling’s grandfather’s own experience as a soldier during the Boer War. Lettie is a figure of abiding grace, and her story is richly drawn and impossible to forget.

Link to an Excerpt (pdf) of The Lost History of Stars

Link to Author’s essay (pdf) A Young Girl in a Forgotten War which reveals

  •  why he was drawn to the Boers War

One of the original impetuses for The Lost History of Stars was that my grandfather had been some manner of camp guard in the British Army during the Boer War. I realized after just a little bit of research that this war has been largely forgotten by most of the world, even though it was a blueprint for the warfare and cruelty to come later in the twentieth century.  With the Boer men and boys (ages eight to eighty) in commandos out on the veld, the British burned the Boer farms and forced the displaced women and children into hastily constructed concentration camps. In the face of terrible sanitation, overcrowding, and lack of food and medical services, twenty-seven thousand women and children died in the camps, a total nearly ten times greater than the number of deaths of soldiers in combat on both sides. It was, truly, a war against children.

  • the process that lead him to integrate fact-based research with Aletta’s personality to deftly narrate the novel in her voice, relating what she experienced and survived her imprisonment

At that point, I surrendered the narration of the book to the character who could breathe life into it: an adolescent girl named Aletta Venter. Over time, that’s left too few opportunities to celebrate the small, hard-won individual victories of brave characters like Aletta Venter.

  • how Aletta morphed into his heroine

Aging from twelve to fourteen in the book, Aletta has the audacity to believe she can carve out bits of normalcy while imprisoned in a British concentration camp in South Africa during the Anglo-Boer War (1899–1902). She grows, adapts, and takes joy in her small daily insurgencies. When facing a lack of paper for her journal, she steals every copy of the posted camp rules she can find. Because, as she reasons, among the many rules imposed by the Brits, none forbids the stealing of the rules. To Aletta, imprisonment is a state of mind, so she wages her tiny war against the British Empire with her only weapons: hope and imagination.

 The Lost History of Stars
Author: Dave Boling | Publisher: Algonquin Books | List Price: $25.95
Hardcover: ISBN 978-1-61620-417-4 | Sale Date 7 June 2017 | Pages 352
Purchase at  Amazon   IndieBound   Powell’s
Ebook: ISBN 978-1-61620-714-4 | Sale Date 11 July 2017
Purchase at  Amazon Kindle   Kobo

Meet the Author
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Born and raised in South Chicago, Dave Boling now lives and works as a sports columnist in the Seattle, Washington area. His first novel, Guernica, an extraordinary historical tale of love, family and war set in the Basque town of Guernica before, during, and after its destruction by the German Luftwaffe during the Spanish Civil War, became an international bestseller and has been translated into 13 languages. Prior to journalism, Boling played football at the University of Louisville and worked as an ironworker in Chicago, a logger in the Pacific Northwest, a bartender, a bouncer, and a laborer in a car factory and steel mills. Boling began writing fiction at age 53.


Algonquin Books |Books For A Well-Read Life

Smiley: Why do we need data to tell us what black people have been saying for years? | Public Radio International

https://www.pri.org/stories/2017-06-07/smiley-why-do-we-need-data-tell-us-what-black-people-have-been-saying-years?utm_source=Facebook&utm_medium=SocialFlow

I look forward to the day when the decency, dignity and humanity of black lives will be given the same high regard as that of white lives in America. 

 Tavis Smiley

I, too, wholeheartedly look forward to that day. 

Brevity Is Bliss: The Best Short Story Collections to Read Now | SignatureReads.com

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By May 11, 2017

Sometimes, the most impactful stories are the shortest ones — the ones that explore emotional highs and lows within the span of a only a few pages. Though these stories may be brief in length, they are vast in meaning, and are nothing short of breathtaking.

In honor of Short Story Month, Signature compiled a list of excellent short story collections that span a variety of topics and facets of life. The collections listed below are all newly released this year or forthcoming in the next few weeks. Each and every collection touches upon something we all know too well: the delicacy of humanity, and all of the love, tragedy, and recovery that comes with it.

  • The cover of the book Things We Lost in the Fire

    Things We Lost in the Fire
    by Mariana Enriquez

    Argentina provides the backdrop for this collection of sometimes disturbing and always provocative stories by Buenos Aires-based writer Mariana Enriquez. From an unlikely serial killer to a curious form of protest to a particularly strange instance of hikikomori, the stories in this collection will mesmerize you.

  • The cover of the book The World to Come

    The World to Come
    Stories by Jim Shepard

    Award-winning writer Jim Shepard is back with his fifth collection of stories, courtesy of The World to Come. The author takes us on adventures spanning geography and time in these ten stories, which touch on war, family, grief, disillusionment, and beyond.

  • The cover of the book Bit Rot

    Bit Rot
    stories + essays by Douglas Coupland

    In his 1991 novel, Generation X, Douglas Coupland debuted his straightforward, edgy, intelligent style of writing while popularizing the phrase we needed to define the post-Boom generation. He’s hardly slowed down since and now presents his new collection, Bit Rot. Ever one to find inspiration in the changing times, this collection of essays and stories focuses on new-millennium life.

  • The cover of the book Hot Little Hands

    Hot Little Hands
    Fiction by Abigail Ulman

    Australian writer Abigail Ulman’s fiction debut, Hot Little Hands, was met with ample praise from critics when it landed in May 2016. In nine stories, Ulman introduces us to young women who are in various states of coming of age – and all the while entirely relatable – while imparting the perfect amount of humor and poignancy simultaneously.

  • The cover of the book What Is Not Yours Is Not Yours

    What Is Not Yours Is Not Yours
    Stories by Helen Oyeyemi

    Award-winning British novelist Helen Oyeyemi had, until last year, stuck to novels and plays for her life in fiction. When her much-anticipated debut story collection, What Is Not Yours Is Not Yours, landed in March 2016, it was everything we wanted it to be and more. And we’re not alone in thinking so; the book has landed on some of the most respected Best Of lists out there. With the theme of keys at its center, Oyeyemi’s first collection is as playful as it is thoughtful and will keep you captivated until the very last page.

  • The cover of the book Cockfosters

    Cockfosters
    Stories by Helen Simpson

    Helen Simpson continues her legacy of being one of the finest internationally acclaimed short story writers with the release of this cynical, yet tender collection. These nine stories revolve around the ever-perplexing concepts of time and aging, and take us from today’s London and Berlin to the wild west of the USA and the wilder shores of Mother Russia.

  • The cover of the book The Family Markowitz

    The Family Markowitz
    Fiction by Allegra Goodman

    These witty short stories are linked through three generations of Markowitzes: Rose, the irritable matriarch; Henry, her art-loving son living in London; Rose’s younger son Ed, a terrorism scholar at Georgetown; and Ed’s daughter Miriam, the medical student who, to her parents’ dismay, becomes an Orthodox Jew. Goodman follows the family’s everyday experiences in such a way that makes the whole family come alive between the pages.

  • The cover of the book These Heroic, Happy Dead

    These Heroic, Happy Dead
    Stories by Luke Mogelson

    Luke Mogelson’s debut collection provides a raw and intimate look at lives that have been transformed by war: soldiers, their families, government officials, and civilians. These ten stories showcase the unexpected cost of war, and the people who have paid the price.

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  • The cover of the book Homesick for Another World

    Homesick for Another World
    Stories by Ottessa Moshfegh

    Award-winning fiction writer Ottessa Moshfegh is known for her short stories for a reason. She has the unique ability to develop characters that represent the human condition in an unfiltered way—they’re lonely and dissatisfied, desperate for something more. These stories are for anyone that has ever felt a deep homesickness for a place they’ve never been before.

  • The cover of the book Signals

    Signals
    New and Selected Stories by Tim Gautreaux

    Widely celebrated novelist Tim Gautreaux proves that he is also a master of short stories with this timeless twelve-story collection about decision-making and morality. Gautreaux deviates from writing about history with this collection and instead focuses on the contemporary life of tight-knit, working class communities in Louisiana, North Carolina, and Minnesota.

  • The cover of the book Mexico

    Mexico
    Stories by Josh Barkan

    International Short Story Prize Winner Josh Barkan has, yet again, captured the essence of humanity by exploring the lives of different people striving for one common goal: peace. Cartel violence seems to make this goal impossible to achieve, with danger lurking around every corner. These stories are about overcoming fear and finding love in the midst of great loss.

  • The cover of the book Living in the Weather of the World

    Living in the Weather of the World
    Stories by Richard Bausch

    Award-winning novelist and universally acclaimed short story writer Richard Bausch showcases his talent in thirteen remarkable tales of human experience. He gives a voice to those that are suffering from troubles with family and marital woes, the tragedy of suicide, the divide between friends and lovers, and the delicate transience of love.

  • The cover of the book What It Means When a Man Falls from the Sky

    What It Means When a Man Falls from the Sky
    Stories by Lesley Nneka Arimah

    One of the most anticipated books of 2017, this debut collection explores the bonds between parents and children, husbands and wives, lovers and friends, and to the places they call home. Each character in this collection experiences something that changes their life forever, and must learn to cope with unexpected repercussions.

  • The cover of the book The Pier Falls

    The Pier Falls
    And Other Stories by Mark Haddon

    This collection from the beloved, bestselling author of The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time takes the reader on a journey from England to Mars, and from ancient Greece to deep in the Amazon. Largely based on history, myth, folklore, and modern life, The Pier Falls combines sci-fi and realism to form nine unforgettable stories.

  • The cover of the book Trajectory

    Trajectory
    Stories by Richard Russo

    Pulitzer Prize winner Richard Russo veers from his typical blue-collar profile of his characters in these four extensive stories. This time around, we look at the relationships between a professor and his plagiarizing student, a father and a son, two brothers, and a novelist and his sick wife. This collection reminds us that people are flawed, and inflict pain on those they love the most.

  • The cover of the book Wedding Stories

    Wedding Stories
    Edited by Diana Secker Tesdell

    A brilliant, romantic matrimony of a variety of works by famous writers from across the past two centuries. The stories collected here encompass the lives of all kinds of people– young and old, rich and poor, divorced and widowed, and single mothers and fathers– all seeking happiness and satisfaction in marriage, even when life doesn’t go as planned.

  • The cover of the book Men Without Women

    Men Without Women
    Stories by Haruki Murakami

    This collection of short stories centers on seven men dealing with emotional tragedy: be it a broken heart, a love triangle, or even death. All seven men seem to feel lost and alone, but soon become overwhelmed with passion as they cross paths with mysterious women.


 

Be sure to download Signature’s Compact Guide to Short Story Writing, get yourself a [collection] from this list, dive into [reading short stories], and take part in celebrating Short Story Month with us.

BOOKS @ signature-reads.com

Why you want to wash your hands when you feel guilty — Ideas.TED.com

SCIENCE – Robert Sapolsky –  May 10, 2017

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Neuroscientist Robert Sapolsky shows us the surprising ways that our brains get mixed up between the physical and metaphorical — and how this can pit us against each other.

When humans put pigment to wall in Lascaux Cave more than 17,000 years ago, the point was to minimize the distance between object and representation, to be as close as possible to possessing the real horse. To gain its power, as imbued in a symbol.

The clearest human mastery of symbolism comes with our use of language. Suppose you are being menaced by something and thus scream your head off. Someone listening can’t tell if it’s in response to a suicide bomber or Komodo dragon. Most animal communication is about such present-tense emotionality.

Symbolic language brought huge evolutionary advantages. This can be seen even in the starts of symbolism of other species. When vervet monkeys, for instance, spot a predator, they don’t generically scream. They use distinct vocalizations, different “protowords,” where one means “Predator on the ground, run up the tree!” and another means “Predator in the air, run down the tree!” Evolving the cognitive capacity to make that distinction is useful, as it prompts you to run away from danger. Language pries apart a message from its meaning, and as our ancestors improved at this separation, their advantages accrued.

Our brains are winging it and improvising on the fly when dealing with metaphor.

The height of the symbolic features of language is our use of metaphor. Metaphors are everywhere in language — we may literally and physically be “in” a room, but we are only metaphorically inside something when we are “in” a good mood, “in” cahoots with someone or “in” love. We understand that a captain wants more than just hands when ordering all of them on deck, and that June doesn’t really bust out all over. These capacities evolved so recently that our brains are, if you will, winging it and improvising on the fly when dealing with metaphor. As a result, we are pretty lousy at distinguishing between the metaphorical and literal, at remembering that “it’s only a figure of speech” — with enormous consequences for our best and worst behaviors.

If humans (or any other mammal) bite into rancid food, the insular cortex lights up and processes gustatory disgust, causing us to spit it out, gag, feel nauseated, make a revolted facial expression. Ditto for revolting smells. We wrinkle our nose, raise our upper lip, narrow our eyes. All of this behavior is intended to protect us from toxins and infectious pathogens.

As humans we do some fancier things. When we think about rancid food, the insula activates; when we look at faces showing disgust, the same occurs. Most important, if you think about a truly reprehensible act, the same occurs. The insula mediates visceral responses to norm violations; the more activation, the more condemnation. This is visceral, not just metaphorically visceral. When I heard about the Sandy Hook Elementary School massacre, “feeling sick to my stomach” wasn’t a mere figure of speech. When I imagined the reality of the murder of 20 first-graders and the six adults protecting them, I felt nauseous. The insula not only prompts the stomach to purge itself of toxic food, it also prompts the stomach to purge the reality of a nightmarish event. The distance between the symbolic message and the meaning disappears.

Hearing about virtuous moral acts makes drinks taste better.

This linking of visceral and moral disgust is bi-directional. As shown in a number of studies, contemplating a morally disgusting act leaves more than a metaphorical bad taste in your mouth — people eat less immediately afterward, and a neutral-tasting beverage drunk afterward is rated as having a more negative taste (conversely, hearing about virtuous moral acts made the drink taste better).

The physiological core of gustatory disgust is to protect yourself against pathogens. The core of the intermixing of visceral and moral disgust is a sense of threat as well. A socially conservative stance about, say, gay marriage is not just that it is simply wrong in an abstract sense, but that it constitutes a threat — to the sanctity of marriage and family values.

This element of threat is shown in a great study in which subjects either did or didn’t read an article about the health risks of airborne bacteria. All then read a history article that used imagery of America as a living organism, with statements like “Following the Civil War, the United States underwent a growth spurt.” Those who read about scary bacteria before thinking about the US as an organism were then more likely to express negative views about immigration (without changing attitudes about an economic issue).

First you’re disgusted by how Others smell, a gateway to then being disgusted by how Others think.

My guess is that people with a stereotypically conservative exclusionary stance about immigration rarely have the sense that they feel disgusted that people elsewhere in the world would want to come to the United States for better lives. Instead, there is threat by the rabble, the unwashed masses, to the American way of life. How cerebral is this intertwining of visceral and moral disgust? Does the insula get involved in moral disgust only if it’s of a particularly gruesome nature — blood and guts, body parts?

It is clear that the intertwining of visceral and moral disgust is, at the least, greatest when the latter taps into core disgust. To repeat a neat quote from psychology professor Paul Rozin, “Disgust serves as an ethnic or out-group marker.” First you’re disgusted by how Others smell, a gateway to then being disgusted by how Others think.

Literal cleanliness and orderliness can release us from abstract cognitive and affective distress — just consider how, during moments where life seems to be spiraling out of control, it can be calming to organize your clothes, clean the living room, get the car washed. The ability of literal cleanliness to alter cognition was shown in one study. Subjects examined an array of music CDs, picked 10 that they liked, and ranked them in order of liking. They were then offered a free copy of one of their midrange choices (number five or six). Subjects were then distracted with some other task and then asked to re-rank the ten CDs. They showed a common psychological phenomenon, which was to now overvalue the CD they’d been given, ranking it higher on the list than before. Unless they had just washed their hands (ostensibly to try a new brand of soap), in which case no re-ranking occurred. Clean hands, clean slate.

We intertwine physical and moral purity when it comes to our own actions. In one of my all-time favorite psychology studiesChen-Bo Zhong of the University of Toronto and Katie Liljenquist of Northwestern University demonstrated that the brain has trouble distinguishing between being a dirty scoundrel and being in need of a bath. Subjects were asked to recount either a moral or an immoral act in their past. Afterward, as a token of appreciation, the researchers offered the volunteers a choice between the gift of a pencil and a package of antiseptic wipes. The folks who had just wallowed in their ethical failures were more likely to go for the wipes. Another study, showing the same effect when people were instructed to lie, demonstrated that the more adversely consequential the lie was presented as being, the more washing subjects did. Lady Macbeth and Pontius Pilate weren’t the only ones to at least try to absolve their sins by washing their hands, and this phenomenon of embodied cognition is referred to as the “Macbeth effect.”

In one study, liars were more likely to pick complimentary cleansing products than subjects who were truthful.

This effect is remarkably concrete. In another study, subjects were instructed to lie about something — with either their mouths (i.e., to tell a lie) or their hands (i.e., to write down a lie). Afterward, remarkably, liars were more likely to pick complimentary cleansing products than control subjects who communicated something truthful: the immoral mouthers were more likely to pick a mouthwash sample; the immoral scribes, hand soap. Furthermore, as shown with neuroimaging, when contemplating mouthwash versus soap, those who’d just spoken a lie activated parts of the sensorimotor cortex related to the mouth (i.e., the subjects were more aware of their mouths at the time); those who had written the lie activated the cortical regions mapping onto their hand.

Another fascinating study showed the influence of culture in the Macbeth effect. The studies previously cited were carried out with European or American subjects. When the same is done with East Asian subjects, the urge afterward is to wash the face, rather than the hands. If you are going to save face, it should be a clean one.

Finally, this intermixing of moral and physical hygiene affects the way we actually behave. That original study on contemplating one’s moral failings and the subsequent desire to wash hands included a second experiment. As before, subjects were told to recall an immoral act of theirs. Afterward subjects either did or didn’t have the opportunity to clean their hands. Those who were able to wash were less likely to respond to a subsequent (experimentally staged) request for help. In another study, merely watching someone else wash their hands in this situation (versus watching them type) also decreased helpfulness afterward (although to a lesser extent than the subject washing). Many of our moments of prosociality, of altruism and Good Samaritanism, are acts of restitution, attempts to counter our antisocial moments. What these studies show is that if those metaphorically dirtied hands have been unmetaphorically washed in the interim, they’re less likely to reach out to try to balance the scales.

Our brains’ confusion of the metaphorical with the literal literally matters. We know that there is an array of mechanisms used by various species for recognizing kin and degree of relatedness — e.g., genetically shaped pheromonal signatures and imprinting on the female whose birdsong you heard a lot while you were still inside an egg. And we’ve seen among other primates there are cognitive components as well. For instance, male baboons’ degree of paternalism can be predicted by their likelihood of being the father.

By the time we get to humans, the process is mostly cognitive. We can think our way to deciding who is a relative, who is an Us. And thus, we can be manipulated into thinking that some individuals are more related to us, and others less so, than they actually are — there are numerous ways to get someone to think that an Other is so different they barely count as human. But as propagandists and ideologues have long known, if you want to get someone to feel that an Other hardly counts as human, there is only one way to do it: engage the insula. And the surest way to do that is with metaphor.

Excerpted from the new book Behave: The Biology of Humans at Our Best and Worst by Robert Sapolsky. Reprinted with permission from Penguin Press, a division of Penguin Random House LLC. © 2017 Robert Sapolsky.

Alice Walker Quote to Get Your Mind Right Tonight

The most common way people give up their power is by thinking they don’t
have any.

—Alice Walker

 

 

​Mental Model: Hanlon’s Razor |farnamstreetblog.com | April 24, 2017

If you ever feel that the world is against you, you are not alone. We all have a tendency to assume that when anything goes wrong, the fault lies within some great conspiracy against us. A co-worker fails to give you a report in time? They must be trying to derail your career and beat you to a promotion. Your child drops and breaks an expensive plate? They must be trying to annoy you and waste your time. WiFi in a coffee shop not working? The staff must be lying about having it to lure you in and sample their crappy espresso.
But the simple fact is that these explanations which we tend to jump to are rarely true. Maybe your co-worker thought today was Tuesday, not Wednesday. Maybe your child had sticky hands from playing with play-doh. Maybe the WiFi router was just broken. This is where Hanlon’s Razor comes in.

Hanlon’s Razor is a useful mental model best summarized as “Never attribute to malice that which can be adequately explained by neglect.”. Like Occam’s Razor, this heuristic is a useful tool for rapid decision-making and intelligent cognition. Applying Hanlon’s Razor in our day-to-day lives, allows us to better develop relationships, become less judgmental, and improves rationality. Hanlon’s razor allows us to give people the benefit of the doubt and have more empathy. In this way, the value of Hanlon’s razor is pronounced in relationships and business matters.

It’s a simple fact that most of us spend a large part of our day communicating with others and making choices based on that. We all lead complex lives wherein (as Murphy’s Law states) things are constantly going wrong. When this occurs, a common response is to blame the nearest person and assume they have malicious intent. People are quick to accuse corporations, politicians, their bosses, employees, coffee shop workers and even family of trying to derail them. When someone messes up around us, we forget how many times we too have done the same. We forget how many times we have elbowed someone in the street, knocked over a drink at a relative’s house or forgotten to meet a friend at the right time. Instead, the perpetrator becomes a source of intense irritation. To assume intent in such a situation is likely to worsen the problem. None of us can ever know what someone else wanted to happen. The smartest people make a lot of mistakes. Inability or neglect is far more likely to be the cause than malice. When a situation causes us to become angry or frustrated, it can be valuable to consider if those emotions are justified. Often, the best way to react to other people causing us problems is by seeking to educate them, not to disdain them. In this way, we can avoid repeats of the same situation.

The phrase ‘Hanlon’s Razor’ was coined by Robert J. Hanlon, but it has been voiced by many people throughout history, as far back as 1774. Napoleon Bonaparte famously declared, “Never ascribe to malice that which is adequately explained by incompetence.” 

Goethe wrote similarly in The Sorrows of Young Werther in 1774:

Misunderstandings and neglect create more confusion in this world than trickery and malice. At any rate, the last two are certainly much less frequent.

German General Kurt von Hammerstein-Equord used Hanlon’s Razor to assess his men, saying: 

I divide my officers into four groups. There are clever, diligent, stupid, and lazy officers. Usually two characteristics are combined. Some are clever and diligent – their place is the General Staff. The next lot are stupid and lazy – they make up 90 percent of every army and are suited to routine duties. Anyone who is both clever and lazy is qualified for the highest leadership duties, because he possesses the intellectual clarity and the composure necessary for difficult decisions. One must beware of anyone who is stupid and diligent – he must not be entrusted with any responsibility because he will always cause only mischief.

Hanlon’s Razor works best when combined and contrasted with other mental models in our latticework of knowledge. Here are some examples of it’s useful interactions:

  • The availability heuristic. This mental model states we misjudge the frequency of recent events. In particular, this occurs if they are vivid and memorable. Many people have a tendency to keep an internal scorecard of other people’s mistakes. For example, imagine that a taxi driver takes a wrong turn and makes a journey more expensive. A month later, the same thing occurs with a different driver. We are likely to recall the previous event and react by seeing all taxi drivers as malicious. Instead of accepting both as simple mistakes, the availability of the memory makes us imagine malicious intent. By combining these two mental models, we can understand why certain situations provoke such strong emotions. When a memory is vivid and easy to recall, we may ignore Hanlon’s Razor.
  • Confirmation bias. We all have a tendency to look for information which confirms preexisting beliefs. When cognitive dissonance arises, we aim to realign our worldviews. Overcoming confirmation bias is a huge step towards making better choices motivated by logic, not emotions. Hanlon’s Razor assists with this. If we expect malicious intent, we are likely to attribute it wherever possible. For example, if someone sees a certain politician as corrupt, they will look for information which confirms that. They become unable to identify when mistakes are the result of incompetence or accident.
  • Bias from disliking/hating. Hanlon’s Razor can provide insights when we deal with people, institutions, or entities which we dislike. The more we dislike someone or something, the more likely we are to attribute their actions to malice. When someone we dislike makes a mistake, reacting with empathy and understanding tends to be the last response. Acting in an emotional way is natural, yet immature. It can only worsen the situation. The smartest solution is, no matter how much we dislike someone, to assume neglect or incompetence. 
  • We also like to attribute our own flaws and failures to someone else, which is a cheap psychological protective mechanism called projection. This allows us to maintain a positive self-image and view friction as someone else’s fault rather than our own. It’s best to run a reality check before blaming others.

Modern media treats outrage as a profitable commodity. This often takes the form of articles which attribute malice to that which could be explained by incompetence or ignorance. We see examples of this play out in the media multiple times a day. People rush to take offense at anything which contradicts their worldview or which they imagine to do so. Media outlets are becoming increasingly skilled at generating assumptions of malicious intent. When looking at newspapers, websites, and social media, it can be beneficial to apply Hanlon’s Razor to what we see.
For example, when Apple’s Siri voice search launched, people noticed that it could not search for abortion clinics. This was immediately taken up as proof of misogyny within the company when in fact, a programming error caused the problem. A similar issue has occurred a number of times with YouTube content policies. When videos discussing LGBTQ matters were filtered on the restrictive viewing mode, many people took extreme offense at this. The reality is that again, this was an algorithm error and not a case of homophobia on the part of their programmers. Countless videos which do not discuss anything related to LGBTQ issues have also been filtered. This shows it to be a case of confirmation bias, wherein people see the malice they expect to see.

One of the most valuable uses of Hanlon’s Razor is in relationships and communication. It is common for people to damage relationships by believing other people are intentionally trying to cause problems for them, or behaving in a way intended to be annoying. In most cases, these situations are the result of inability or accidental mistakes.

Douglas Hubbard expands upon this idea in Failure of Risk Management: Why it’s Broken and How to Fix it:  

I would add a clumsier but more accurate corollary to this: ‘Never attribute to malice or stupidity that which can be explained by moderately rational individuals following incentives in a complex system of interactions.’ People behaving with no central coordination and acting in their own best interest can still create results that appear to some to be clear proof of conspiracy or a plague of ignorance.

A further example can be seen when semantic barriers interfere with communication. We have all encountered people struggling to speak our native language, perhaps because they are a tourist or have recently moved to the county. You have probably seen someone gets frustrated at them or even been the one getting annoyed. Or if you have ever traveled to or lived in a country where you are not fluent in the language, you might have been the one people got annoyed at. Realistically, the person asking you for directions or struggling to order their coffee is not mixing up their nouns and speaking in a strong accent on purpose.

Hanlon’s Razor tells us they are merely inarticulate and are not trying to waste anyone’s time. The same issues occur when a person uses language which is considered too complex or too basic. This may form a semantic barrier, as other people assume they are trying to confuse them or are being blunt.

A short-cut to regulating what can be strong reactions to inadvertent events is to conscientiously reframe the perpetrator as a toddler knocking over a vase. Their actions are rendered unintentional and clumsy, highlighting their need for help, maturation or supervision, allowing you to rapidly regain composure and not take it personally.

Like any mental model, Hanlon’s Razor has its limitations and its validity has been contested. Some critics consider Hanlon’s Razor to be an overly naive idea which can blind people to true malice. While people have malicious intent far less often than we think, it is still something which must be taken into account. Sometimes actions which could be attributed to incompetence are in fact consciously or unconsciously malicious.

An instance of Hanlon’s Razor being proven wrong is the Mafia. Prior to the 1960s, the existence of the Mafia was considered to be a conspiracy theory. Only when a member contacted law enforcement, did police realize that the malice being perpetrated was carefully orchestrated.

To make the best use of Hanlon’s Razor , we must be sure to put it in context, taking into account logic, experience, and empirical evidence. Make it a part of your latticework of mental models, but do not be blind to behavior which is intended to be harmful.

Sheryl Sandberg Is Right: Single Moms Are The Original ‘Leaner Inners’ : NPR

http://www.npr.org/2016/05/11/477618345/sheryl-sandberg-is-right-single-moms-are-the-original-leaner-inners

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